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Constitution Wall


Towering six stories over the courtyard, Constitution Wall features sculpted words from the California Constitution. Chosen for their enduring meaning, they inspire reflection on the freedoms guaranteed to all Californians. 

Depending on the angle of the light throughout the day and in varying seasons, different words become more prominent. The word “RIGHTS,” which is the underlying theme of the piece, stands out more in the late morning and early afternoon, while “redress” and “assemble” are more apparent at midday.

In addition to varied reliefs, the words are punctuated by the wall’s color scheme, drawn from California’s landscape palette of forest, ocean and desert hues. Metal oxides embedded in the wall’s surface colors change over time, ensuring that the Wall is constantly evolving, like the Constitution itself.

Designed by artists Mike Mandel, Larry Sultan and Paul Kos, Constitution Wall was built by Frederick Meiswinkel Inc. in collaboration with Esherick, Homsey, Dodge & Davis. The sculpture was funded in part by the California Arts Council’s Art in Public Buildings program.